手机买球app下载扩展 将农民聚集在一起, 行业, and 政府机构 to come up with science-based solutions for reducing pollutants in Pennsylvania’s watersheds impacting the Chesapeake Bay.
考虑到海湾影响了六个州的1700万人, 这似乎是一项艰巨的任务. 单宾州就有83个,000 miles of rivers and streams; more than 4,000个湖泊, reservoirs and ponds; thousands of acres of wetlands and floodplains; and a complex network of underground aquifers. 但是通过引入农民, 农业行业组织, 地主, 政府机构, 还有环保组织和非营利组织, 手机买球app下载 is developing comprehensive science-based solutions that can have lasting impacts.
马修•罗耶 director, 手机买球app下载的 农业与环境中心, College of Agricultural Sciences
“Pennsylvania is blessed with an abundance of water—almost every resident lives near a river or stream. 确保这些水的清洁对健康至关重要, 的生活质量, 娱乐, 和经济. We all play a role, whether you own a 1,000-acre farm or a tiny lot in town.”
手机买球app下载的 农业与环境中心-由大学的全体教职员工参加，包括 Institute for Sustainable Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Science (SAFES)—is leading the crusade to reduce pollutants in Pennsylvania’s watersheds impacting the Chesapeake Bay.
切萨皮克湾是美国最大的河口, and Pennsylvania plays a big part in the restoration of this crucial resource—about half of the 状态 drains to the bay, 萨斯奎哈纳河是其最大的支流, 提供了大约50%的淡水.
Significant sources of pollution are excess 营养物质 and sediment runoff from urban landscapes and agricultural operations, 解释了马特•罗耶, 农业与环境中心主任. Royer is also an environmental attorney and founder of the Tri-County Conewago Creek Association, a group dedicated to restoring the 53-square mile Conewago Creek watershed in Dauphin, 黎巴嫩, 和兰开斯特县. Excess 营养物质 encourage the growth of algae that robs water of oxygen, 使其不适合水生生物生存. Sediment coats streambeds, smothering the vegetation and insects fish need for habitat and food.
Agricultural activities and stormwater runoff have contributed to the bay’s dead zones, 没有生命存在的地区. An estimated 34,000 Pennsylvania farms are located in the bay’s watershed. Farmers must do their part to prevent runoff from entering water sources.
Agriculture is one of the 状态’s largest industries—feeding millions and employing tens of thousands—and Royer said it is 手机买球app下载的 responsibility as Pennsylvania’s land-grant institution to aid these farmers.
“Many farmers are willing to invest their own dollars, but some can’t shoulder the cost,”他说. “他们需要财政、技术和教育资源. 我们想帮助他们，让他们为我们提供食物, 是有利可图的, 成为土地和水的好管家.”
The Chesapeake Bay watershed includes almost two-thirds of Pennsylvania. 主要通过萨斯奎哈纳河, the 状态 supplies fully half of the bay’s freshwater flow and the largest share of its agricultural pollution.
这就解释了为什么农民们对切萨皮克湾感兴趣, 但普通公民为什么要关心这个问题呢? 正如罗耶指出的那样, 海湾不仅是丰富的鱼类和野生动物的家园, 但它对国家的经济和福祉也至关重要, 提供就业机会, 娱乐, 还有数百万人的食物, 包括宾夕法尼亚州.
事关重大, researchers and 手机买球app下载扩展 specialists have made significant strides in water quality through cutting-edge research and education. 例如, researchers are investigating subsurface manure injection technology designed to keep 营养物质 in the soil, 农作物可以在哪里使用它们. They also have evaluated no-till cropping systems for their ability to reduce erosion and keep 营养物质 on the land.
科学家们还在研究“精确饲养牲畜”,” which can reduce the amount of excess phosphorus and nitrogen in manure while maintaining animal health and productivity, and are examining the role of riparian buffers—zones of vegetation adjacent to streams—that reduce the amount of sediment, 营养物质, 以及进入水道的其他污染物.
手机买球app下载的另一项创新是中间播种机, a piece of agricultural machinery that makes it easier for farmers to plant cover crops. 研究 has shown that cover crops can significantly reduce erosion and take up excess 营养物质, thereby reducing the amount of agricultural pollution infiltrating water.
罗耶表示，这些举措正在取得成效. He referenced a 手机买球app下载-led survey of farmers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed conducted in 2016 that measured their use of soil conservation and water quality practices.
Nearly 7,000 producers responded to the survey, which showed that farmers funded and installed 1.沿着河岸建起了300万英尺的围栏, 安装2,000个粪肥储存单元, 和种植6,000英亩的森林缓冲带. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2020 in the priority counties of Lancaster, 纽约, 亚当斯, 和富兰克林. 近1,这四个县的800名农民参与了调查, 报告了另外270个粪肥仓库的资金和安装情况, 118个谷仓庭院径流控制系统, 超过7,增加了000英亩的森林和草地缓冲带, 先进的营养管理技术对至少84个,000英亩的农田.
More good news—long-term monitoring of Pennsylvania’s rivers and streams show nutrient pollution is decreasing, and Pennsylvania recently reported some of the largest annual nutrient reductions in decades, 罗耶指出.
“It’s extremely rewarding to know we are making a difference in our local communities, 我们的国家, 和我们的世界,”他说. “And we won’t stop because there is nothing more important to life than safe, clean water.”
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